Adult Obesity


The morbidity and mortality associated with being overweight or obese far outweigh those of taking care of yourself.

The problems associated with obesity are as follows:

  • 1Mortality: the risk of dying increases significantly due to the problems that accompany overweight or obesity
  • 2Life expectancy: obesity in adulthood in associated with reduction in life expectancy for both men and women
  • 3Morbidity: obesity and increased central fat are associated with increased morbidity and mortality


  • 1
    Diabetes mellitus: type 2 diabetes mellitus is strongly associated with obesity in all ethnic groups and may account for more than 80% of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • 2
    Insulin resistance: insulin resistance with hyperineulinemia is characteristic of obesity and occur before the onset of diabetes mellitus
  • 3
    Hypertension: blood pressure is often increased in obese subjects
  • 4
    Dyslipidemia: obesity leads to high level of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL- cholesterol and triglycerides and a reduction in HDL cholesterol

Hepatobiliary system

  • 1
    Hepatobiliary disease: obesity is associated with increased gallstone formation
  • 2
    Steatosis: the incidence of fatty liver increases with obesity


  • 1
    Heart disease: is common in obesity due to the above risk factors and increase in plasma fibrinogen concentrations, prothrombic factors and thromboxane-dependen platelet activation
  • 2
    Coronary disease: obesity is associated with increased risk of CAD and cardiovascular mortality
  • 3
    Myocardial stentosis increases with increasing BMI
  • 4
    Atrial fibrillation/firitter: obese individuals (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those with normal BMI (<25 kg/m2)
  • 5
    Stroke: obesity is associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke
  • 6
    Venous thrombosis: obesity is associated with increased risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus
  • 7
    Dementia: obesity is associated with increased risk of dementia.

Gastrointestinal: obesity is a risk factor for GERD, erosive esophagitis, esophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cancer

Orthopedic: obesity is associated with high incidence of osteoarthritis of the knee, carpometacarpal joint, distal interphalangeal joint and proximal interphalangeal joint

Skin changes:

  • Stretch marks (strial)
  • Acanthosis nigricans
  • Hirsutism due to increased production of testosterone

Endocrine changes: obesity is associated with the following

  • Diabetes mellitus/hyperlipidemia as noted above
  • Irregular menses
  • Anovulatory cycles
  • Decrease fertility
  • Disorders of sexual and orgasm
  • Erectile dysfunction

Kidney disease: there is increased formation of kidney stones in obesity.

Respiratory system: sleep apnea

Cancer: obesity is associated with higher rate of the following cancers

  • Esophageal
  • Colon and rectum
  • Liver
  • Gallbladder
  • Pancreas
  • Kidney
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Men
    • Stomach
    • Prostate
  • Women
    • Breast
    • Uterus
    • Cervix
    • Ovary